Julie Piccione, DVM, MS, DACVP, clinical pathology section head, is part of a team who recently published an article over systemic mastocytosis.
Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by infiltration of multiple organs by neoplastic mast cells. This entity is well-covered across literature in human medicine, but is ill defined in veterinary literature.
Read the abstract below and access the article here.
Systemic mastocytosis, characterized by infiltration of multiple organs by neoplastic mast cells, is a well-described entity in human medicine with specific criteria for diagnosis, but is ill defined in veterinary literature. Hemostatic disorders are reported in humans affected by systemic mastocytosis but have not been well described in veterinary literature. A 5-y-old, spayed female Greyhound dog had a 1-mo history of progressive ventral cutaneous edema, hemorrhage, and pain. Cytology of an antemortem aspirate from the subcutis of the ventral abdomen was suggestive of mast cell neoplasia, but no discrete mass was present. The dog was euthanized and submitted for autopsy; marked subcutaneous edema and hemorrhage were confirmed. The ventral abdominal panniculus and dermis superficial to the panniculus carnosus were infiltrated by a dense sheet of neoplastic mast cells. The neoplastic cells contained toluidine blue–positive granules and formed aggregates within the bone marrow and several visceral organs, including the liver, spleen, heart, and kidney. Diffuse edema and hemorrhage is an unusual presentation of mast cell tumors in dogs. Antemortem tests, including complete blood count, coagulation profile, and viscoelastic coagulation testing, were suggestive of a primary hemostatic defect. We discuss here the diagnostic criteria used in humans, how these can be applied to veterinary patients, and the limitations of the current diagnostic framework.